State Pharaonic

State Pharaonic

State stretches in the history of Pharaonic Egypt to about three thousand years from 3200 BC until entering Egypt by Alexander the Great in 323 BC.

Egypt has seen during the Pharaonic era, many of the stages of the Renaissance and the progress which has left a tremendous legacy of the manifestations and effects of civilization and urbanization, science and the arts.

Historians divide the Pharaonic era in the history of Egypt to three consecutive sections are:
- The old state.
- Central State.
- The modern state.

It also divides the historians of this era to thirty dynasty divided into these three stages of the history of Egypt. 
King Menes

Archaic period (two couples 1.2): 
King Menes united the two countries first family
Back to the king, "Mina" credited with achieving political unity of Egypt around the year 3200 BC. M, and was able to establish the first dynasty in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, and had wanted to Mina believes that the country's unity sued the city, near the head of the Delta, later named "Memphis", and this unit was an important factor in the renaissance of Egypt in various aspects of life.

Old state (the families of 3 to 6):
Aattabrasr this state the period of Egypt's youth was marked by stability, security and peace, which is pleased to offer economically and culturally and artistically, and has held the banner of rule of the kings of the ancient state of the builders of the pyramids about 2800 BC. M after that moved the country to the throne of Memphis, at the hands of the pharaoh Zoser owner of the oldest known pyramid and is the step pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt and civilization flourished in the days of this country, not least because of the huge Pyramids of Giza of King Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure

Average age first (dynastic from 7 to 10):
This era began around the year 2200 BC. M while lose hold the reins of power from the hand of Pharaoh even managed to "Mentuhotep II" unite the country once again.  

Central State (dynastic 11.12):
"Mentuhotep II"
After that enables "Mentuhotep II" Emir good about the year 2065 BC. M from the re-unification of the country he established a strong government succeeded in consolidating the system and create security, which helped the recovery of the country's economic progress and the arts and architecture and then began the year 2000 BC. A rule is a great man Amenemhat first owner credited the largest in the Renaissance building that appeared days Central State. Amenophis III

It has won the kings and queens of the Twelfth Dynasty international fame in the fields of politics, war and culture, civilization and religion, such as "Ahmose" liberation hero, "Amenhotep I," the fair, which issued a law to prevent forced labor and standard-setting fair wages and incentives, and "Tuthmosis I" Warrior, who expanded the Egyptian border north and south and the dissemination of education and expansion in open mines and mining industry, and "Tuthmosis II" and "Thutmose III" Emperor His military genius inimitable and first light is great in the history of the world, and "Tuthmosis IV," the diplomat, who was first interested in the codification and registration of international treaties, and "Amenhotep III," the richest king in the ancient world and the opening of schools "houses of life" for the dissemination of education and fine arts and applied, and "Akhenaten" first Unitarian and the first king in the history of humanity Club in the oneness of God, the Creator of everything, and "Tutankhamun," which won fame in the contemporary world, the most famous queens of this family, for example, the Queen "Ahhotep" the wife of the King "Seqenenre," the Queen "Ahmose Nefertari" wife Ahmose I, and Queen "T" girl people and the wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten and Queen "Nefertiti" wife "Akhenaten "The great Queen" Hatshepsut "that ruled Egypt for nearly twenty years and reached Egypt in outdated highest peak in civilization, architecture and international trade where the Mission sent a marine commercial and scientific to the country," punt "well constructed and one of the greatest architectural monuments and most splendor and grandeur of a temple," Bahari "On the western shore of the Nile in the face of Luxor, a temple is unique in its design and has no parallel between the temples of the ancient world as a whole, as witnessed this era also" revolution of Akhenaten religious "where he called to the worship of one god and a symbol of a sun disk and established a new capital of the country and called it" Akhetaten ".

Second average age (dynasties from 13 to 17):
During the era of the Twelfth Dynasty around 1725 BC .ththomps second m the pastoral tribes who lived in Palestine and dubbed "Hyksos" raided Egypt and the invasion of its territory, and when he took power in the weakness of the Hyksos, Hebb good princes fighting for the freedom of their country's recovery stolen and may God wrote them success and managed to grab Ahmose of their capital in the Delta and expelled from the country.  

Modern State (dynasties from 18 to 20):
After the expulsion of the Hyksos, Ahmose returned to his country in 1571 BC. M, where he spent the revolutions of the Nubians to the south and headed to internal reform in the country and interested in the establishment of the Army worker organizer and armed with all weapons known at that time and gave him the wheel of war, and is Ramses II of the most famous kings of this state and is considered wars last effort made ​​by the kings of the modern state in order to maintain unity has ended before him with the king of the Hittites signed a non-aggression pact between the two parties after the Battle of Kadesh, and this treaty is the first peace treaty in history, Egypt has become a major force, and thus became a great empire sprawling  

Late Period (dynasties from 21 to 30):
This was the era closing chapter in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, where she was the family since the rule of 21 and 28 until the family to occupy all of the Assyrians in 670 BC, the Persians until then ended the rule of the Pharaohs with the family of the 30 and the entry of Alexander the Great, Egypt. 

Arts Pharaonic civilization:
Architecture: Egyptians excelled in the art of architecture and its implications timeless testament to that in the old state constructed terraces and pyramids which represent buildings funeral, and the first pyramid built is a "pyramid of Zoser," then "pyramid of Meidum", but the most famous of all the pyramids of Giza three and a statue of the Sphinx and constructed in the era of the Fourth Dynasty and the number of pyramids built to be the resting place of the Pharaohs 97 pyramid.  
The three pyramids and the Sphinx
Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramid Meidum

And then began to spread funerary temples in the Middle Kingdom and cared Dynasty 12 area Fayoum work its irrigation, and months temples established kings of this family temple "Albrant" or "Maze Palace" as called by the Greeks who built King "Amenemhat III" in Hawara, near Fayoum as built castles and forts and fences on Egypt's eastern borders. The era of the modern state's greatest period known methods of architecture and murals, crafts and fine arts that appear on the walls of temples, some of the huge variety of designs Kalkrnk, Luxor and Abu Simbel

The era of "Tuthmosis I," a turning point in the building of the pyramid to be a cemetery, carving graves hidden in the soles of the mountain in the western mainland Luxor characterized by richness and beauty in the funerary furnishings and was clearly shown in the tomb of the King, "Tutankhamun."
Was baptized artists of this state - to keep the wall inscriptions - to use a drill relief and slightly embossed so as not exposed to loss or distortion, and most recently discovered tombs of the Valley of the Kings tomb of the sons of Ramses II, one of the largest area containing 15 mummies.
Pharaonic obelisks were held in front of the entrances to temples duplication which is carved from granite, and the most beautiful examples of the Empire era groves of ancient Egyptian temples "Amon" and "Cheops" and "Karnak" and "Luxor" and "Ramesseum" and "Hatshepsut" mainland east and temples carved into the rock, such as "Abu Simbel" and "Abu Simbel small."
New trends in architecture and fine arts, applied and can be clearly seen in the art of carving sculptures large and small temples and decorative columns and wall reliefs.

 confirm the effects of the Egyptians proficiency in writing and literature and shows that clear while leaving Egyptians effects, History will not forget preferred Egyptians on humanity in the invention of writing, which he called the Greeks "calligraphy hieroglyph" and consists of the alphabet hieroglyphics of 24 characters .. Ancient Egyptians used black or red ink in writing on papyrus. • the form of a paper from papyrus showing the principles of learning and on behalf of the now well-known guidebooks
The Egyptians excelled in religious literature, which dealt with religious beliefs and theories about life and other mysteries of the universe and the various myths of the gods, prayers and hymns, and the oldest examples of religious literature, "the texts of the pyramids and the" Book of the Dead. "
As writer excelled in ancient Egyptian writing stories and was keen to be a tool to convey the word of wisdom and etiquette Egyptians remained keen on a novel heritage and proverbs and chant on their festivals and ceremonies.
Thus, the Egyptians were keen peoples of the world to register and record their history and the events that they have experienced in their lives and this step of civilization back many of the writers and the wise and Egyptian intellectuals who have left us works are indicative of the paper thought and culture in Egypt.

I love music and singing Egypt, and the Egyptians accept the music used in the education of young people in public and private ceremonies, especially in the army, as well as used in prayers and burial of the dead. The Egyptians knew in the era of the old state woodwind and stringed instruments such as the "Fugitive" (the name of the Pharaonic Tiboty) and devised patterns and forms of machines that perform different rhythms and tones and they developed through the stages of ancient history. 

Clothing and decorations:
Egyptians knew adornment jewelery, and characterized Musnoathm exactly high art and the beauty of the formation, and derived decorative elements of nature such as papyrus and palm and the lotus flower and gems, and used amulets, which they thought were protected from the forces of evil, and made ​​sure women in particular on interest Bzintha used kohl and bracelets and contracts, rings, necklaces and henna, also differed clothes in Pharaonic Egypt from layer to another, and the clothes are made of soft linen or silk fabrics imported from the old country of Syria, also varied depending on the clothes occasions.  

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