Egypt's modern era

The beginning of the modern era

Begins the modern era in Egypt to take over Muhammad to judge the will of the Egyptian people in 1805, defying the authority of the Ottoman Empire, was born Mohamed Ali Pasha in the words of one of the cities of Greece in 1769, and when attacked Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt and proceeded Porte (Turkey) to mobilize their armies joined Muhammad Ali to the battalion for the defense of Egypt, Mohammed Ali has been in Egypt, and saw the end of the campaign by the French.

Muhammad began to scheming for the same plan was not preceded by the Sun, which is friendly to the Egyptian people, and co-opt its leaders to reach the pinnacle of power, especially after the revolution of the people against the Mamluks in March 1804 m from the multitude, the occurrence of grievances and raise taxes on the Egyptian people, and here I take Mohammed to the evolution of All this movement and endorsed.

Mohammad Ali came to power in Egypt to achieve the desire of the Egyptian people and their leaders and scientists, who have issued their verdict isolating the Ottoman governor Khurshid Pasha, and the appointment of Mohamed Ali and the ruler of Egypt instead of him on May 13 in 1805 AD, and thus assume Mohamed Ali Pasha ruled Egypt at the behest of her sons to Egypt will start a new phase from the Renaissance influenced the history of political and military, economic, social, and despite the differences in opinion on the reforms of Muhammad Ali, but that there is a consensus that Muhammad Ali is that modern Egypt and whether his reforms, all intended to strengthen the army and he scoffed at the capabilities of the people, and its potential to serve the sole purpose of making personal glory and the formation of a vast empire ruled he and his sons, but the impact of these reforms was great and what began Muhammad Ali Pasha ruled Egypt, but he had the determination and even designed that makes Egypt a country with the rule after an absence of many centuries of this sovereignty and going on the same linear progress and prosperity witnessed by the major countries of the world at that time, and especially England and France after that Egypt remained a state of the Ottoman Empire for three centuries successive stuck between many forces.
After that has been restored to Mohammed Ali Pasha ruling concludes a no leadership popularity of Pkberha Omar Makram The isolation and denied to Damietta and spent the enemies of the Mamluks in the massacre of the Mamelukes famous year 1811 as he abolished the teams Janissaries or teams of soldiers of the Ottoman and he had to get rid of the threat of Englishmen him, beating them its progress in the campaign to Fraser in 1807.




Began the advancement of Egypt:
Muhammad Ali in laying the foundations for the advancement of a new modern Egypt as follows


Army:
The Muhammad Ali to form a modern army soldiers from the Egyptians to defend their country and in order to get the money to equip the army and fleet stressed from the control of the import and export trade, and the foundations of the monopoly system, and thus was able to Mohammed on the pillars of his rule, and established the first military school of infantry year 1820. In the year 1823 was the first formation of the Egyptian army was composed of six battalions and then the number of these battalions later became the Egyptian army with the latest military systems in the world in that time, has helped the army in the implementation of policy ambitious valuable composition of a vast empire in a country that speaks the language Arab consisting of Egypt, Sudan, Syria, Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula to be a strong guarantee to maintain the integrity of the region and the risk of greed European division

Education:
Also has Mohammed on the Status of initial blocks of modern education in Egypt despite what befell of extreme difficulty and here he created a system of modern education in the elementary stages and processing and privacy also published various schools to teach the children of the Egyptian people, including military schools and music schools of military and other schools, also was there are many other schools such as the School of Languages ​​and the School of birth and the School of Medicine or School of Qasr al-Aini School of Veterinary Medicine and the School of Agriculture and other schools, as deliberately to send educational missions abroad to deficit-Azhar for the provision of qualified personnel in the Commerce, Industry and Agriculture

Industry and Agriculture:
Cared also industry, which evolved much in his reign, which has become the second mainstay of the state after education in all its forms, particularly military industries to keep up with systems that existed in Europe and so as not to rely Egypt to bring all its needs from abroad, and was thus created many factories and was the first to plant a government in Egypt is factory Kharanfash in the year 1816, and then began, following factories, whether military or other which led to Muhammad on to pursue a special policy for the advancement of these factories started first using experts and artisans from European countries to train cadres Egyptian heads of workers and makers, technicians and Ahlalhm replace foreigners gradually.
Mohammed also the first great attention on agriculture sued major projects to regulate irrigation and water Kalguenatr charitable and Mahmudiyah Canal, which supplied Alexandria with Nile water .. and enter the cash crop to Egypt, especially cotton crop, as well as some other products used in industry

Architecture and Engineering:

Egypt's keenness on promoting in all other areas, especially in the architecture, which was characterized by Boutrz new and exotic to Egypt was mostly due to the introduction of European Mohammed on many of the engineers and foreign workers to build many of the buildings, whether religious, civil or military
Characterize the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the organization renaissance in architecture and engineering represented that it has become no list of where the organization has opened lanes and routes and easy passage out, and became the people of Egypt in their buildings follow modern architectural styles

Treaty of London:
 Declared Muhammad Ali in 1838 its intention to secede from the Ottoman Empire declared European states its opposition under the pretext of maintaining the policy of the international balance in 1839 defeated the Egyptians Turks and surrendered to the Ottoman fleet to Muhammad Ali now the Ottoman state without an army or fleet intervened European countries, especially Britain and threatened ăÍăĎÚáí military alliance international against him and imposed by the Treaty of London in 1840 and provides for giving Mohammed Ali ruled Egypt and genetically with the survival of Egypt part of the property of the Ottoman Empire and was the international trusteeship, which were produced by that treaty led to the control of financial and political foreign what made Egypt a colony without the need for military battles or foreign military presence directly

Successors of Muhammad Ali:
- Ibrahim Pasha took the eldest son of Mohammed Ali Pasha of 1848 that died on November 10, 1848.
- Abbas Helmy first son Ahmed Toson Pasha, the son of Mohammed Ali Pasha, November 10, 1848 to July 13, 1854.
- Mohammed Said Pasha, son of Mohammed Ali Pasha of July 14, 1854 to January 18, 1863.
- Khedive / Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Mohammed on (and then to the Khedive) of January 19, 1863 to June 26, 1879.
- Khedive / Mohamed Tawfiq bin Ismail Pasha of June 26, 1879 to January 7, 1892.
- Khedive / Abbas Hilmi II took over in January 8, 1892 and the isolation of the September 19, 1914.
- Sultan / Hussein Kamel took over from December 19, 1914 to October 9, 1917, died.
- King Fouad I took from October 9 to 28, died in April 1936. (Sultan then king).
- King Farouk I of April 28, 1936 to be abdicated in July 26, 1952.
- King Ahmed Fouad II of the July 26, 1952 to the proclamation of the Republic in June 18, 1953.

- And try sons Mohammed to walk in his behavior in an attempt to catch up with European civilization, has seen the country in the era of Khedive / Ismail Pasha renaissance represented in administrative reform also saw the industry and agriculture renaissance and gangbusters in the custody and care of construction and architecture, and established the Old Opera House, laying railway lines and in 1869 opened the Suez Canal for international navigation.
Egypt has seen several revolutions against foreign interference where intensified national movement was a revolution Orabi in 1882 that ended British occupation of Egypt, which drew struggle continuously led the national leader Mustafa Kamel at the beginning of the twentieth century, and his successor leader Mohamed Farid, this has entered Egypt to the twentieth century, which is burdened British colonialism Dgoth to plunder its riches, and doubled the Popular Resistance and the national movement against the occupation, and the back of a sense of national strongly with the 1919 revolution to demand independence, and was the national leader Saad Zaghloul prominent role in, and then canceled the British protectorate over Egypt in 1922 and the recognition of its independence, and released the first Constitution of the Egyptian in 1923, and Egypt was known in the period from 1923 to 1952 first experience of pluralism and partisan parliamentary democracy, but corruption Serail and interventions King, occupation, and the deviation of some parties about the role the National all this has led to a climate of deterioration and weakness, which peaked defeat Arab in Palestine War in 1948, paving the conditions to the revolution of July 23, 1952.
  
July 23 Revolution:
Led by Gamal Abdel Nasser revolution of July 23, 1952, which has many of the accomplishments of the most important version of the agrarian reform law and the signing of the Convention on the evacuation of the British occupation from Egypt, prompting the former colonial powers (Britain and France) to the alliance with Israel waging unjust aggression on Egypt after the Egyptian decision to nationalize the canal Suez, has addressed Egypt for this aggression and supported by world public opinion, which forced the attackers to withdraw, and put the first five-year plan for economic and social development in the history of Egypt in 1960 and achieved its objectives in the development of industry and production has been the establishment of the High Dam from 1960 to 1970, and got up the country in the fields of education, health and construction and reconstruction and agriculture.

In the field of foreign policy has worked to promote the July Revolution of colonial liberation movements have also taken a policy of positive neutrality basic principle of its foreign policy.
And realized Israel since its inception leadership role of Egypt in the Arab world arose in the June 5, 1967 AD attack left on Egypt, Syria and Jordan and occupied the Sinai and the Golan Heights and the West Bank to Jordan.
The Army was able to Egypt, despite the enormity of the loss to express the ordeal in their steadfastness against Israeli forces entered the war of attrition. At that time the commander died July Revolution leader / Gamal Abdel Nasser in September 1970.
 

And came to power of President Anwar Sadat and began the policy of preparing the country for the liberation war and put all the resources of the state in preparation for the war until the sixth day of October 1973, the Egyptian and Syrian armies at the same time to start the battle to liberate Arab land from Israeli occupation and defeated the Egyptian army and raised the flags of Egypt on the east bank of the channel Suez hours after the attack.
Has achieved the Egyptian forces a major victory in the war in October 1973, making President Anwar Sadat thinking in solving the Arab-Israeli conflict a radical solution and establish a just and lasting peace in the Middle East fell Egypt's peace treaty with Israel in March 26, 1979 with the participation of the United States after that paved her President Sadat's visit to Israel in 1977, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula in the April 25, 1982, and withdrew from the Taba border crossing bar on the basis of the arbitration, which has been in the international Court of Justice in 1989.

In October 1981 took over the rule of President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and began his reign to work to achieve internal stability and to strengthen and consolidate the principles of democracy and the rule of law and social peace, national unity, and it was the greatest attention is the development of comprehensive and continuous.

President Mubarak, who continued in office for a period of almost thirty years, was for years his reign, which lasted for five periods presidential achievements represent mostly in the improvement of infrastructure, and 



the expansion of the establishment of new urban

communities, and improve the capacity of the economy development, as well as play a balanced role on the political arena of regional and international However, the political performance of his rule has resulted in many of the negatives, representing mostly in the spread of corruption and cronyism, and the inability of the
government's plans
to meet the needs of the growing popularity due to population growth, high and rising RS in the budget deficit, and the growing burden of inflation on the citizens, as well as the departure of Egypt African surroundings .. All this contributed to the revolution of the Egyptian people and dislodge the regime in February 2011.

The transition period from February 2011 to the end of June 2012 moderated by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, who was able to steer the ship home floating amid choppy waves, and handed over the reins of power for the first civilian president elected d. Mohamed Morsi


Mohamed Morsi, the fifth President of the Arab Republic of Egypt
The first after the revolution of January 25 and is the first civilian elected president of the country. It was declared the winner in the June 24, 2012 increased by 51.73% of the votes of participating voters and took over as President of the Republic officially in June 30, 2012 after the Republican oath

Until he was removed in 2013 in Egypt, which came after demonstrations June 30 took over the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party after its founding after that was a member of the guidance of the Muslim Brotherhood office in the June 30, 2012 took Mohamed Morsi, the post of President of the Arab Republic of Egypt in an official capacity, while the performance of Republican oath before the Supreme Constitutional Court in Cairo in the presence of presidents and judges. He then went to the University of Cairo in a procession presidency to meet with leaders of the state and public figures and ambassadors of the countries and others in a formal ceremony, and his speech to mark the occasion. Alhaekesteb then went to the area, the armed forces to attend the ceremony, in the presence of Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, head of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces at the time, and his deputy, Lieutenant General Sami Annan and a number of military leaders and statesmen.
Armed Forces deadline

Armed Forces identified in the July 1, 2013, in a statement, notice (48) hours to meet the demands of the people in demonstrations June 30, otherwise intervene and announces «the future and procedures for overseeing the implementation roadmap».
The statement, which was broadcast on state television, said that the Egyptian scene witnessed, yesterday's demonstrations, and the departure of the great people of Egypt to express his opinion and his will in a peaceful and civilized than ever, and «everyone saw the movement of the Egyptian people and heard his voice with the utmost respect and attention», stressing that «imperative that people receive in response to the movement, and the appeal of each party shall bear a measure of responsibility in these dangerous circumstances surrounding the home. »
Armed Forces said in a statement that it «will not be a party to the policy circle or judgment, do not accept to go out for her role assigned to it in the democratic thought inherent stemming from the will of the people», noting at the same time that «the national security of the State Fair at serious risk about the developments in the country, which is thrown on us, each according to its responsibilities, as befits the deal in order to ward off the risks. »

She said she «felt the armed forces early on the seriousness of the present situation, and afford it the demands of the Egyptian people great, but it has already identified the deadline a week all political forces in the country to agree and get out of the crisis, however, this week passed without the emergence of any gesture or act, which led out to the people and the insistence of the design, and complete freedom, as such resounding, which raised the admiration and appreciation of and interest on the domestic, regional and international level ».

The General Command of the Armed Forces that «the loss of more time will not bring only more division and wrestle, which warned and continue to warn him», arguing that people «suffered and did not find it accompanied by or Ihno it, which places the burden of moral and myself on troops armed, that you find that everyone is obliged to stop for anything other than embrace this noble people, who demonstrated the willingness to achieve the impossible if he felt loyalty and dedication for him ».
Armed forces said they «re reiterates the call to meet the demands of the people, and everyone is given a 48-hour last chance to bear the burdens of historical circumstance, which passes by the home, which will not tolerate or forgive any forces fail to assume their responsibilities.»
The statement declared that «if the people's demands are not met by the deadline will be incumbent on the armed forces on the basis of national and historical responsibility, and respect for the demands of the great people of Egypt to announce the map of the future, and procedures for overseeing the implementation of the participation of all factions and national trends sincere including youth, who was A suicide remains of the glorious revolution, and without exclusion or excluded one ».
And the face of the statement «tribute to the pride and men of the armed forces loyal loyal, who were and are still enduring national responsibility to the great people of Egypt with all the resolve and determination and pride

Abd alfatah alsisi

The sixth is the current President of the Arab Republic of Egypt


He was elected for a period of 4 years after his success in the 2014 presidential election, previously he 
served as commanding general of the Egyptian armed forces and minister of defense forty-fourth since August 12, 2012 until his resignation on March 26, 2014 to run for president
Overthrew former dictator Mohamed Morsi (first elected civilian president after the revolution of January 25) following demonstrations demanding his departure
He announced several actions associated knew that the road map endorsed by the demonstrators and opponents of Morsi at the time, and considered it to support popular demands

 While accusing him of another part of the Egyptian society and the Arab and international levels to carry out a military coup announced a road map after the isolation of President Mohamed Morsi in July 2013 and developed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces in the wake of popular protests demanding the removal of President Mohamed Morsi from office, and included disable the constitution temporarily; and the appointment of the Chairman The Supreme Constitutional Court as interim president of Egypt; and the holding of early presidential elections

Which was organized in May 2014.
At March 26, 2014 Abdel Fattah al-Sisi announced his resignation from his post as defense minister officially and run in presidential elections

Sisi was won by winning 23 780 104 votes at 96.9% of the valid votes

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi announced in August 2014 for the start of drilling new Suez Canal project in addition to the development of the areas around it that will double the canal's capacity of 49 ships currently to 97 vessels in addition to increasing revenues by 259%, and is expected to reach revenues to 100 billion dollars a year, is expected to be completed within one year only

The implementation of the project within 7 tunnels under the Suez Canal area, including 4 tunnels Ismailia, Port Said and 3 tunnels

Sisi issued a road project called the National Roads Project consists of a network of roads in length of more than 4400 kilometers

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